Short Term Load Forecasting for Smart Grids Using Apache Spark and a Modified Transformer Model
Keywords:Apache Spark, big data, deep learning, load forecasting, smart grid, time-series forecasting, transformer model
Smart grid is an advanced electrical grid that enables more efficient distribution of electricity. It counters many of the problems presented by renewable energy sources such as variability in production through techniques like load forecasting and dynamic pricing. Smart grid generates massive amounts of data through smart meters, this data is used to forecast future load to adjust distribution. To process all this data, big data analysis is necessary. Most existing schemes use Apache Hadoop for big data processing and various techniques for load forecasting that include methods based on statistical theory, machine learning and deep learning. This paper proposes using Apache Spark for big data analysis and a modified version of the transformer model for forecasting load profiles of households. The modified transformer model has been tested against several state-of-the-art machine learning models. The proposed scheme was tested against several baseline and state-of-the-art machine learning models and evaluated in terms of the RMSE, MAE, MedAE and R2 scores. The obtained results show that the proposed model has better performance in terms of RMSE and R2 which are the preferred metrics when evaluating a regression model on data with a large number of outliers.